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Forklifts are industrial handling vehicles, which are various wheeled handling vehicles for loading and unloading, stacking and short-distance transportation of palletized goods.ISO/TC110 is called industrial vehicle.Often used to transport large storage items, usually powered by fuel engines or batteries.
The diesel engine is characterized by cheap fuel, large power, strong ability to climb hills, low requirements for road surface, long operation duration, good maintenance performance and cheap accessories. Therefore, the main engine forklift truck at the present stage is mainly diesel engine, and the main model is xinchai 490A.
1. Rated lifting weight: the rated lifting weight of a forklift refers to the maximum weight of the goods allowed to lift when the distance from the center of gravity of the goods to the front wall of the fork is not greater than the distance from the load center, expressed in T (ton).When the center of gravity of goods on the fork exceeds the prescribed load center distance, the lifting weight shall be reduced due to the limitation of longitudinal stability of the forklift.
2. Load center distance: load center distance refers to the horizontal distance T of the front wall of the vertical section of the center of gravity delivery fork when standard goods are placed on the fork, which is expressed in mm (mm).For 1T to 4T forklifts, the load center distance should be 500mm.
3. Maximum lifting height: the maximum lifting height refers to the vertical distance between the upper surface of the horizontal section of the fork and the horizontal ground where the forklift is located when the forklift truck is fully loaded and the goods reach the highest position on the flat and solid ground.
4. Portal frame inclination Angle: portal frame inclination Angle refers to the maximum inclination Angle of the portal frame relative to its vertical position on the flat and solid ground without load.The function of rake Angle is to facilitate the forking and unloading of goods;The rake Angle is used to prevent the goods from sliding off the fork when the forklift is carrying freight.The rake Angle of forklift truck is 3°~6°, and the rake Angle is 10° ~ 12°.
5. Maximum lifting speed: the maximum lifting speed of forklift truck usually refers to the maximum lifting speed of goods when the forklift truck is fully loaded, which is expressed in m/min (m/min).Increase the maximum lifting speed, can improve the efficiency, but the lifting speed is too fast, prone to cargo damage and aircraft damage accidents.The maximum lifting speed of domestic forklifts has been raised to 20m/min.
6. Maximum driving speed: increasing the driving speed has a great impact on improving the operating efficiency of forklifts.For the internal combustion forklift truck with a lifting weight of 1T, its minimum driving speed when full load is not less than 17m/min.
7. Minimum turning radius: when the forklift is driving at low speed without load and turning with full steering wheel, the minimum distance from the outermost and innermost parts of the vehicle body to the turning center is called the minimum outer turning radius Rmin and the minimum inner turning radius Rmin, respectively.The smaller the minimum lateral turning radius is, the smaller the ground area and the better the maneuverability of the forklift.
8. Minimum ground clearance: minimum ground clearance refers to the distance from the lowest point fixed on the vehicle body beyond the wheel to the ground, which represents the ability of the forklift to cross the raised obstacles on the ground without collision.The larger the minimum clearance, the higher the passability of forklift.
9. Wheelbase and wheelbase: the wheelbase of forklift truck refers to the horizontal distance between front and rear axle center line of forklift truck.The wheelbase is the distance between the center of left and right wheels on the same shaft.The increase of wheelbase is beneficial to the longitudinal stability of forklift, but it increases the length of body and the minimum turning radius.Increasing the wheelbase is beneficial to the lateral stability of the forklift, but it will increase the overall width and minimum turning radius.
10. Minimum width of right-angle channel: minimum width of right-angle channel refers to the minimum width of right-angle intersecting channel for forklifts to drive back and forth.In terms of mm.Generally, the smaller the minimum width of right-angle channel, the better the performance.
11. Minimum width of stacking channel: the minimum width of stacking channel is the minimum width of the channel in normal operation of forklifts.
Scope of application
Industrial transport vehicles are widely used in ports, stations, airports, freight yards, factory workshops, warehouses, circulation centers and distribution centers, etc. They are essential equipment for pallet transport and container transport.
Forklifts usually fall into three categories: internal combustion forklifts, electric forklifts, and storage forklifts.
The internal combustion
Internal combustion forklift truck is divided into general internal combustion forklift truck, heavy forklift truck, container forklift truck and side forklift truck.
(1) ordinary internal combustion forklift
Diesel, gasoline, liquefied petroleum gas or natural gas engines are generally used as power, the load capacity of 1.2 ~ 8.0 tons, the width of the working channel is generally 3.5 ~ 5.0 meters, considering the exhaust emissions and noise problems, usually used in outdoor, workshop or other places without special requirements for exhaust emissions and noise.Due to the convenience of fuel replenishment, it can realize continuous operation for a long time and be capable of working in harsh environment (such as rainy day).
(2) heavy lift truck
Using diesel engine as power, carrying capacity of 10.0 ~ 52.0 tons, generally used for heavy cargo wharf, steel and other industries of outdoor operations.
Container forklift truck
Using diesel engine as power, carrying capacity of 8.0 ~ 45.0 tons, generally divided into empty container stacking machine, heavy container stacking machine and container front crane.Used in container handling, such as container yard or port operations.
Side fork lift truck
Adopt diesel engine as power, bearing capacity 3.0 ~ 6.0 tons.Without turning, it has the ability to fork the goods directly from the side, so it is mainly used to fork the goods of strip type, such as wooden bars, steel bars and so on.
Electric motor as power, battery as energy.The carrying capacity is 1.0 ~ 8.0 tons, and the working channel width is generally 3.5 ~ 5.0 meters.Due to no pollution and low noise, it is widely used in indoor operation and other conditions with higher environmental requirements, such as medicine, food and other industries.With people's attention to environmental protection, electric forklifts are gradually replacing internal combustion forklifts.As each battery needs to be charged after working for about 8 hours, spare batteries should be equipped for multi-shift operation.
Storage forklift is mainly designed for goods handling in the warehouse.Except a few storage forklifts (such as manual pallet forklifts) are driven by human power, the others are driven by electric motors, which are widely used in the storage industry due to their compact body, flexible movement, light weight and good environmental performance.Motor driven storage forklifts need backup batteries for multiple shifts.
The carrying capacity is 1.6 ~ 3.0 tons, the working channel width is generally 2.3 ~ 2.8 meters, and the lifting height of the fork is generally about 210mm, which is mainly used for horizontal handling and cargo loading and unloading in the warehouse.There are three operating modes, such as walking, standing and sitting, which can be selected according to the efficiency requirements.
Forklift truck safety requirement
1. The door frame shall not be deformed or welding seam unwelds. The rolling gap of the internal and external door frame shall be adjusted reasonably and shall not be greater than 1.5mm.The wear of wheel groove shall not be more than 10% of the original size.
2. The tensioning degree of the two lifting chains should be even without distortion, and the end connection should be firm. The length of the chain should not exceed 4% of the original length, otherwise the chain should be replaced.Sprocket wheel should be flexible in rotation.
3. The cargo fork frame shall not be seriously deformed and the welding seam shall be unwelded.The surface of the fork shall not be cracked or welded.The fork root Angle shall not be greater than 93° and the thickness shall not be lower than 90% of the original size.The height difference between the left and right fork tips shall not exceed 3% of the horizontal length of the fork.The positioning of the cargo fork shall be reliable, the supporting surface and positioning surface of the cargo fork hook shall not have obvious defects, and the coordination gap between the cargo fork and the cargo fork rack shall not be too large, and the movement shall be smooth.
4. The connecting part of the lifting cylinder and the door frame should be firm, and the hinge of the inclined cylinder and the door frame and the vehicle frame should be firm and flexible, and the fitting gap should not be too large.Cylinder should be well sealed, no crack, smooth work.Under the rated load, the self-sink of the portal frame in 10min shall not be greater than 20mm, and the inclination Angle shall not be greater than 0.5 °.Lift speed at full load should not be less than half of the standard value.
5. Roof bracket and shelving must be complete and effective.
6. No one is allowed to stand on the fork. It is not allowed to use a single fork to pick up goods with higher load.
7. Forklift truck drivers with forklift truck driving license should avoid multiple drivers of one forklift truck.
(1) check vehicles
(1) before forklift operation, the appearance should be checked and fuel, lubricating oil and cooling water should be added.
(2) check start-up, operation and braking performance.
(3) check whether the lighting and sound signals are complete and effective.
(4) check whether the pressure and temperature are normal during operation of the forklift.
(5) after the operation of the forklift, the external leakage should be checked and the seals should be replaced in time.
(6) in addition to the above contents, battery forklift truck should also check the circuit of battery forklift truck according to the relevant inspection contents of battery truck.
(1) before starting, observe around, confirm that there is no obstacle to the safety of driving, first honk, then start.
(2) for pneumatic braking vehicles, the brake barometer reading must reach the specified value before starting.
(3) when the forklift truck starts to carry the load, the driver should first confirm that the load is stable and reliable.
(4) start slowly and steadily.
(1) when driving, the bottom of the fork shall be kept 300-400mm from the ground, and the door frame shall be bent backward.
Don't lift the fork too high when driving.In and out of the work site or on the road, pay attention to the air there is no obstacle scratch.When carrying objects, if the fork rises too high, it will increase the overall center of gravity height of the forklift and affect the stability of the forklift.
(3) after unloading, the cargo fork should be lowered to the normal driving position before driving.
(4) when turning, if there are pedestrians or vehicles nearby, the signal should be issued and fast turning should be prohibited.A sharp turn at high speed can cause a vehicle to lose lateral stability and tip over.
(5) the internal combustion forklift is strictly prohibited to stall and slide down the slope.
(6) it is forbidden to brake sharply while carrying objects in driving unless it is under special circumstances.
(7) the brake shall not be used unless it is in special circumstances when the load is traveling at more than 7 degrees and the speed is higher than first gear.
(8) forklift trucks must follow the traffic rules in the factory and keep a safe distance from the vehicles in front.
(9) when the forklift is running, the load must be at the minimum position that does not hinder the running, and the portal frame should be appropriately tilted backward. The load shall not be increased except for stacking or loading.When carrying large objects, objects block the driver's line of sight, should reverse the forklift truck.
(10) forklift truck is controlled by the rear wheel to steer, so it is necessary to pay attention to the swing behind the truck at all times, to avoid the phenomenon of too sharp turn often seen by beginners when driving.
(11) turning on ramps is prohibited and driving across ramps is not allowed.
(12) when the forklift truck is carrying goods downhill, it shall drive backwards to prevent the goods from toppling.
(4) loading and unloading
(1) when loading goods with fork, the distance between the two fork should be adjusted as needed, so that the load of the two fork should be balanced, no deviation, one side of the goods should be attached to the shelf, the weight of the fork should comply with the provisions of the curve sign of the load center.
(2) the load height shall not block the driver's line of sight.
(3) in the process of loading and unloading, the brake must be used to brake the forklift.
(4) when the cargo forklift approaches or withdraws the goods, the speed should be slow and steady, pays attention to the wheel not to roll the goods, the wooden cushion, and so on, in order to avoid the rolling objects flying injury.
(5) when using the fork to pick up the goods, the fork should be placed as deep as possible under the load, and the fork tip should not touch other goods or objects.Minimum portal tilting shall be used to stabilize the load and prevent the load from sliding backwards.When the load is lowered, the gantry can be brought forward slightly to facilitate the loading and drawing of the fork.
(6) it is forbidden to take goods at high speed or collide with hard objects with fork ends.
(7) forklift operators are forbidden to stand on the fork.
(8) forklift forklift forklift operation, personnel are forbidden to stand around the forklift to avoid collapse of goods and injury.
(9) it is forbidden to use fork to lift personnel to work at height, so as to avoid falling accidents.
(10) do not use braking inertia to glide articles.